Yin and Yang
The function of Yin and Yang is guided by the law of unity of the opposites. In other words, Yin and Yang are in conflict but at the same time mutually dependent. The nature of Yin and Yang is relative, with neither being able to exist in isolation. Without "cold" there would be no "hot"; without "moving" there would be no "still"; without "dark", there would be no "light".
The direct meanings of Yin and Yang in Chinese are bright and dark sides of an object. Chinese philosophy uses Yin and Yang to represent a wider range of opposite properties in the universe: cold and hot, slow and fast, still and moving, masculine and feminine, lower and upper, etc. In general, anything that is moving, ascending, bright, progressing, hyperactive, including functional disease of the body, pertains to Yang.
The characteristics of stillness, descending, darkness, degeneration, hypo-activity, including organic disease, pertain to Yin. The most illustrative example of Yin-Yang interdependence is the interrelationship between substance and function. Only with ample substance can the human body function in a healthy way; and only when the functional processes are in good condition, can the essential substances be appropriately refreshed.
Day is Yang and night is Yin, but morning is understood as being Yang within Yang, afternoon is Yin within Yang, evening before midnight is Yin within Yin and the time after midnight is Yang within Yin. The seed (Yin) grows into the plan (Yang), which itself dies back to the earth (Yin). This takes place within the changes of the seasons. Winter (Yin) transforms through the Spring into Summer (Yang), which in turn transforms through Autumn into Winter again.
Traditional Chinese medicine holds that human life is a physiological process in constant motion and change. Under normal conditions, the waxing and waning of Yin and Yang are kept within certain bounds, reflecting a dynamic equilibrium of the physiological processes. When the balance is broken, disease occurs. Typical cases of disease-related imbalance include excess of yin, excess of Yang, deficiency of Yin, and deficiency of Yang.